What Are Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals In Beauty Products & Should We Avoid Them? (2022)

What Are Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals In Beauty Products & Should We Avoid Them? (1)

The cosmetics industry as we know it is getting a major glow-up, thanks to the increasing number of “clean beauty” brands emerging from the limelight.

While more and more cosmetic companies shift towards ~chemical consciousness~, the story behind this industry-wide movement is still unfolding: specifically, endocrine-disrupting chemicals and how they impact our overall hormonal health.

So, what are endocrine disruptors? Endocrine-disrupting chemicals, not-so affectionately referred to as “EDCs”, are defined by the World Health Organization as “an exogenous substance or mixture that alters the functions of the endocrine system and consequently causes adverse health effects in an intact organism, or its progeny, or (sub) populations” (1).

In layman’s terms: endocrine disruptors are an external chemical that penetrates your endocrine system through consumption (food), absorption (skincare), or inhalation (perfume) and can alter not only your hormonal health, but also the health of any potential offspring. Say it with me, people: W-T-F.

Unfortunately, these seemingly silent assassins appear in way more than just your everyday cosmetics: plastic bottles/containers, detergents, flame retardants, food, toys, and pesticides all contain one or more of the same endocrine disruptors that are found in some of the products you use on your face and body (2).

Now, I admit, that does sound kind of like you could be spritzing the equivalent of Raid onto your face every morning, but let’s take a collective breath: it’s not that drastic. Actually, truth be told, a lot more scientific research is needed to determine the real damage these chemicals could cause to the human body over time.

So - if we don’t have all of the facts yet, where does that leave us when it comes to endocrine disruptors?

Should we care about endocrine disrupting chemicals as much as clean beauty brands say we should?

Is this all a clever marketing tactic to bank off of a “100% organic” fad?

(Video) What Are Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals? Makeup And Medicine

Are we in real danger??

To help uncover the mystery surrounding this murky topic, I took a peek into what scientists and experts have to say so far, and…Y’ALL. It was WAY more complicated than I initially thought, to say the least. This about sums up my mood after 5 minutes of research:

What Are Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals In Beauty Products & Should We Avoid Them? (2)

JK, of course, but, still. Murky indeed!

While the Kris Jenner in me still believes this is definitely a case for the FBI (meaning, science really does need more time to catch up), I did manage to make some sense of what little research is available today. Here’s the current scoop on endocrine disruptors & why clean beauty is on a mission to eliminate them.

The long & the (very) short of EDC research

As we’ve learned so far, science has only just begun to scratch the surface of endocrine disruptor’s effect on human development, with research only tracing back to the early 90’s. However, most of the studies that I found focused on household and agricultural products, not cosmetics, leaving much to be desired as we try to understand why excluding them from skincare & beauty products is such a hot topic across the industry.

Sadly, this lack of research and clear answers also means that endocrine disruptors could be harming us more than we know - only time and research will tell, leaving us with one ginormous, looming grey area. :(

However, it’s important to note that including these chemicals is technically considered “safe” to do under current FDA regulations. This is why you may find a lot of the major no-no’s - like phthalates and BHA - on store shelves near you, even though they are considered potentially dangerous by some experts. Again, only time will tell us the true damage (or lack thereof) that these ingredients could have on our bodies.

(Video) Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs)

Before you jump the gun and immediately purge your collection of all things EDC-infused, though, consider this: while these warnings are definitely something to think about as you shop for products, cosmetic endocrine disruptors are currently incorporated in small, FDA-approved doses, which they advise is safe for human use… at least for now.

A brief explanation of the endocrine system in our bodies

To effectively communicate the potential impact that endocrine disruptors have on our bodies, we should first revisit the definition of the endocrine system itself (it’s been a hot minute since middle school science class, I know, so don’t be ashamed if you need this refresher).

In short, the endocrine system is a series of ductless glands that secrete hormones directly into the blood to regulate various bodily functions. This complex system of organs includes your gonads (your sex organs which produce estrogen or testosterone), pituitary glands (which stimulate growth), and adrenal glands (your go-to source of cortisol when you need it most, like right before a stressful event). The endocrine system is a key component in reproduction, immune function and metabolic health, keeping us from developing health issues like obesity and diabetes.

How do endocrine disruptors affect human health (at very low doses)?

Your endocrine system includes some of the most crucial machinery within your body. Because of this, scientist’s biggest fear is that long-term exposure to endocrine disruptors could have disastrous effects on this fragile system: cancer, infertility in men and women, and cognitive deficits, to name a few.

However, none of these potential risks or early warnings from experts have stopped endocrine disruptors from being included in many cosmetics - in fact, current FDA regulation states that they will only act on a product that shows evidence of harm AFTER it’s been introduced to the market (3).

Basically, what this means is that if it DOES turn out that endocrine disruptors in cosmetics are dangerous to our long-term health, the current protocol says that we as the consumer will have to experience the adverse effects before the FDA will officially consider it a problem.

To break it down further: unless we start seeing harmful, extreme side effects from exposure to these chemicals, the FDA will continue to allow them to be used in products. *aggressive side eye from clean beauty believers everywhere*

What Are Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals In Beauty Products & Should We Avoid Them? (3)

(Video) Avoid These Toxic, Carcinogenic, Endocrine-Disrupting Skincare & Fragrance Ingredients!

So, what are common endocrine disruptors?

Now that we’ve covered the basics of endocrine disrupting chemicals and where the current regulations stand with them, it’s finally time to directly address the top four offenders commonly found on clean beauty’s “most wanted” list. What are the four types of endocrine disruptors often found in beauty products? Here are the prime suspects to look out for, along with their alleged crimes against human health:

Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)

Often used in lipstick, eye shadow, and petroleum products (like lip balm), you may have recently encountered BHA and BHT while primping for a virtual blind date, or making yourself presentable for an impromptu Zoom meeting.

While early studies suggest that skin irritation is the most imminent threat of exposure to BHA and BHT, let’s not forget: the jury’s still out on what the long-term effects of regular use are. Research is yet to be completed, so the real question remains unanswered. My advice? As with any perceived threat: proceed with caution.

FYI: BHAs and BHTs are also known as Sodium Laureth Sulfate, or “SLS” for short.

Phthalates dibutyl phthalate (DBP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), and diethyl phthalate (DEP)

First of all, the person who came up with this name is rude. PERIODT.

Second, it’s pronounced “thal-ates”. Please enjoy the extra 5 minutes that you would’ve spent trying to sound that one out on your own.😇

As if the pronunciation wasn’t hard enough, phthalates can be hard to spot on the label, too: it’s also a key component in vinyl, PVC, DEHP, DBP, fragrance, and parfum. Most commonly used in cosmetics like perfumes, hair spray, lotion, shampoo, nail polish, and soaps, these avenues allow the chemicals to absorb into your skin upon contact.

So far, lab studies suggest that exposure to phthalates can mimic/block female hormones, and may cause developmental and reproductive issues such as low sperm count, gestational diabetes and early onset puberty in adolescents.

(Video) What are Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and how to avoid them

Parabens (propyl-, isopropyl-, butyl-, and ethyl- parabens)

Ladies, listen up: this is an important one for you to note.

Unlike most endocrine disruptors found on this list, there are several studies that already connect parabens to cases of breast cancer in women. Essentially, parabens are synthetic estrogen that act like normal estrogen, infiltrating and ultimately disrupting the hormone system. Scary!

Of course, this doesn’t necessarily mean that using cosmetics with parabens will automatically lead you to the same fate, but there’s enough risk and research available to conclude that you should definitely take heed of the warnings when choosing your everyday arsenal.

To weed out any culprits that you may have hiding in your medicine cabinet, look for parabens in your moisturizers, shampoos, conditioners, lotions, facial & shower cleansers, shaving products, and scrubs. Luckily, many brands on the market clearly state they are paraben-free, making shopping for them a breeze.


Used as an antimicrobial agent, triclosan is an active ingredient in both toothpaste and shaving cream, even after being banned from soaps by the FDA in 2016. In fact, Colgate only recently decided to remove it from their ingredient list (although they’ve publicly claimed that the move was unrelated to the potential harm it may cause).

Triclosan’s tricky reputation for causing gut inflammation, on top of its potential endocrine disrupting nature, make it one to be wary of if you are dealing with any stomach conditions.

Still wondering how to avoid endocrine disruptors?

Although the idea of using these chemicals has been strongly discouraged amongst clean beauty gurus and experts alike, remember that many of the alarming side effects listed above require a lot of exposure before they become a real health risk.

If you do decide to avoid skincare & beauty products that use endocrine disruptors, just know that they can be found everywhere you go; try not to obsess over eliminating them all! We’re strong believers in reading labels carefully so that you, and not brand marketing, are in the driver's seat. If you’re not in the mood to read long labels and sift through products, opting for more ethical, transparent beauty brands for your cosmetics needs is another simple way for you to protect yourself as we wait for final answers.

(Video) Hormone Disrupting Chemicals in Beauty Products

Written by Adrianne Neal

RecommendedReading:Greenwashing: Why The Term "Natural" Can't Be Trusted


  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4462476/
  2. https://www.niehs.nih.gov/health/topics/agents/endocrine/index.cfm
  3. https://www.pbs.org/newshour/health/why-your-cosmetics-dont-have-to-be-tested-for-safety


What are endocrine disruptors in cosmetics? ›

EDCs are a class of chemicals that interfere with normal hormone function. They include “forever chemicals,” also known as PFAS (per- and polyfluorinated substances), which are found in adhesives, nonstick cookware, food packaging, and even waterproof mascara.

What are most common endocrine disruptors in skincare? ›

Among these endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), parabens, benzophenones, bisphenols, and phthalates are the most widely found in these products.

Should we be worried about endocrine-disrupting chemicals Why or why not? ›

We found clear evidence showing how EDCs disrupt our hormones and harm our health. They are linked to male and female reproductive disorders, obesity, diabetes, neurological problems, immune and thyroid disorders, osteoporosis, Parkinson's disease, and hormone-related cancers.

What are examples of endocrine-disrupting chemicals? ›

Examples of endocrine disruptors include:
  • Bisphenol A (BPA). Some food storage containers contain this chemical.
  • Dioxins. ...
  • Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS). ...
  • Phthalates. ...
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). ...
  • Triclosan.
7 Apr 2022

Does shampoo have endocrine disruptors? ›

Parabens are one of the most talked about endocrine disruptors commonly found in cosmetics. These are found in things like shampoos, conditioners, lotion, and even face cleaners.

Do face creams have estrogen? ›

Estrogen may be added to some anti-aging creams for their effectiveness in raising collagen count and increasing skin hydration. Hormones in personal care products are listed as a known carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the National Toxicology Program (NTP).

What is the cleanest skin care line? ›

Our top picks:
  • Best Clean Skincare and Hair Brand: Alaffia.
  • Best Clean Makeup Brand: Beautycounter.
  • Best Value Clean Beauty Brand: Love Beauty & Planet.
  • Best Drugstore Clean Beauty Brand: Garnier Whole Blends.
  • Best Luxury Clean Beauty Brand: L'Occitane.
  • Best Luxury Clean Skincare Brand: Babor.
28 Apr 2022

What foods are high in endocrine disruptors? ›

Farmed meats and fish raised on an un-natural diet that is focused on producing quantity but not quality may contain high levels of hormones, antibiotics, PCBs, and mercury. These are endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs)—they come into your body and send your hormones, like estrogen and progesterone, into a tailspin.

How can we avoid endocrine disruptors? ›

Avoid storing canned or plastic-packaged foods in hot areas, like the trunk of a car on a summer day. Also, avoid microwaving or heating food in plastic containers. EDCs could leach out of the container and into your food and body. Reduce pesticide use.

How do endocrine disrupting chemicals affect human health? ›

EDCs can disrupt many different hormones, which is why they have been linked to numerous adverse human health outcomes including alterations in sperm quality and fertility, abnormalities in sex organs, endometriosis, early puberty, altered nervous system function, immune function, certain cancers, respiratory problems, ...

What products have hidden endocrine disruptor chemicals? ›

The first in the list of EDCs is probably one of the most commonly known: parabens. They are used as a preservative in makeup, lotion, hair care products, shaving creams, toothpaste, suntan products, personal lubricant, and some deodorants.

Is lavender essential oil an endocrine disruptor? ›

Lavender oil and tea tree oil contain compounds that mimic or oppose the actions of sex hormones and may be considered endocrine disruptors. Persistent exposure to lavender products is associated with premature breast development in girls, according to new research by NIEHS scientists.

Does sunscreen have endocrine disruptors? ›

BP-3 and OMC are two common sunscreen ingredients that are also known to have endocrine-disrupting potential 8. While they are mainly used as UV filter in sunscreens, they are also prevalent in air, drinking water, cosmetics, fragrances and plastic packagings, providing additional routes of exposure to humans 9.

Does toothpaste have endocrine disruptors? ›

Recent studies suggest triclosan may increase a child's risk of allergy. It is also an endocrine disruptor. It is wise for parents to make sure that personal care products purchased for use by children are free of triclosan. This includes toothpaste, mouthwash, hand soap, shampoo, lotions, crèmes and deodorant.

What are 4 common products containing endocrine disruptors? ›

Endocrine disruptors are found in many everyday products, including some plastic bottles and containers, liners of metal food cans, detergents, flame retardants, food, toys, cosmetics, and pesticides.

What shampoos should I avoid? ›

8 Ingredients to Avoid in Your Shampoo and Conditioner
  • Sulfates. ...
  • Parabens. ...
  • Polyethylene Glycols. ...
  • Triclosan. ...
  • Formaldehyde. ...
  • Synthetic Fragrances and Colors. ...
  • Dimethicone. ...
  • Retinyl Palmitate.

Does lipstick have estrogen? ›

They are found in sunscreens, perfumes, hair sprays, shampoos, conditioners, styling gels, facial creams, foundations, moisturizers, lipsticks, liquid hand soaps, body wash, insect repellants, nail polish and polish remover, and aftershave and shaving creams.

What products are high in estrogen? ›

5 foods high in estrogen
  • Red wine. Consuming phytoestrogen-rich foods and drinks like red wine in moderation (up to 5 ounces/148 milliliters a day for women of all ages) has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and breast cancer. ...
  • 2. Fruits (fresh and dry) ...
  • Nuts. ...
  • Flax seeds. ...
  • Soy.
13 Nov 2020

Who should not use estrogen cream? ›

Known, suspected, or history of breast cancer. Known or suspected estrogen-dependent neoplasia. Active DVT, PE, or a history of these conditions. Active arterial thromboembolic disease (for example, stroke and MI), or a history of these conditions.

What is the number 1 dermatologist recommended skin care brand? ›

Neutrogena. The brand: You don't need to spend tons of money for effective products that derms love; Neutrogena is touted as the number one dermatologist-recommend skincare product and you can find it at the drugstore.

What are the 3 most important skin care products? ›

Three Essential Elements in a Basic Skincare Routine
  1. Step 1: Cleanser. Choosing a cleanser that's specifically formulated for the face (rather than the body) is the first essential step in a basic skincare routine. ...
  2. Step 2: Moisturizer. ...
  3. Step 3: Sunscreen. ...
  4. 3 (or 5) simple steps to beautiful skin.

Which hormone is responsible for female beauty? ›

The oestrogen female face was consistently rated as more attractive, feminine and healthy looking. Future studies should address the nature of facial cues related to hormone levels.

Are perfumes hormone disruptors? ›

Researchers have found that 70% of perfumes tested contained phthalates, which are known hormone disruptors. What do hormone disruptors do? Once absorbed into your skin, they affect you by either mimicking or blocking your natural hormones.

What hormone controls women's appearance? ›

Estrogen is involved when a girl starts puberty. During puberty, a girl will have breast growth, start to accumulate body fat around the hips and thighs, and have a growth spurt. Estrogen and progesterone are also involved in the regulation of a girl's menstrual cycle. These hormones also play a role in pregnancy.

Which fruit is best for hormones? ›

Raspberries, blueberries, blackberries, and strawberries are all hormone balancing foods packed with great nutrients. Berries are rich sources of vitamin C, which regulates your progesterone levels, particularly during the luteal (PMS) phase of your cycle [1].

Are eggs endocrine disruptors? ›

Foodstuffs in which EDCs can accumulate include meat, fish, eggs, and milk.

What foods affect female hormones? ›

4 Foods That Throw off Your Hormonal Balance
  • Red Meat. Red meat contains high amounts of saturated and hydrogenated fats which are considered unhealthy types of fat. ...
  • Processed Foods. Processed and refined foods have been linked to various health issues. ...
  • Caffeine. ...
  • Soy and Dairy products.

Is broccoli a hormone disruptor? ›

Broccoli contains molecules called glucosinolates which may inhibit iodine uptake and thyroid hormone formation, particularly in the event of an existing iodine deficiency. Eating brassica vegetables in moderation, cooking them, and adequate iodine intake can reduce these effects.

What is an endocrine disruptor simple definition? ›

"An endocrine disruptor is an exogenous substance or mixture that alters function(s) of the endocrine system and consequently causes adverse health effects in an intact organism, or its progeny, or (sub)populations" 'Community strategy for endocrine disruptors'

What are some other names for endocrine disruptors? ›

Endocrine disruptors, sometimes also referred to as hormonally active agents, endocrine disrupting chemicals, or endocrine disrupting compounds are chemicals that can interfere with endocrine (or hormonal) systems.

Do endocrine disruptors affect the brain? ›

Unfortunately, the brain is highly vulnerable to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), which can cause widespread disruption of hormone receptors, enzymes, and nerve signals. The renewal, maintenance, and death of neurons are also highly hormone-sensitive.

What are symptoms of endocrine disruption? ›

What Are the Symptoms of an Endocrine Disorder?
  • Mood swings.
  • Fatigue.
  • Weakness.
  • Unintended weight fluctuations.
  • Changes in blood glucose levels or cholesterol levels.

Is milk an endocrine disruptor? ›

There are several types of estrogen in cow's milk, including estrone and 17β-estradiol. Some types of estrogen are more likely to act as endocrine disruptors than others. In other words, they're more potent.

Is caffeine an endocrine disruptor? ›

Caffeine can disrupt your hormonal cascade.

Caffeine itself can cause your body to produce extra cortisol. And while cortisol isn't always bad (the steroid hormone helps maintain healthy blood pressure levels and regulates blood sugar), high cortisol levels can affect your body's ability to regulate inflammation.

How can I protect my hormones? ›

Here are seven things you can try to keep some of your key hormones in healthy ranges:
  1. Drink water. ...
  2. Breathe. ...
  3. Get good quality sleep or rest. ...
  4. Exercise. ...
  5. Eat lean protein, healthy fats, fiber and veggies. ...
  6. Avoid sugary and processed foods. ...
  7. Eat when you're hungry and try to avoid overeating.
12 Dec 2018

Is Vaseline an endocrine disruptor? ›

Many products (including petroleum jelly) contain chemicals called xenoestrogens which may increase estrogen problems in the body. Studies have shown that these chemicals may act on hormone receptors in the body and lead to estrogen dominance.

Is almond oil a hormone disruptor? ›

Most of the sweet almond oils available in supermarkets contain chemicals, which are considered as endocrine disruptors.

Is bleach a hormone disruptor? ›

Chlorine compounds is an endocrine disruptor and causes intense liver pains. Eliminate bleach, chlorine, carbon tetrachloride, plastic from your environment. Inhaling bleach products is even more harmful if one has PLD as the lungs sit near the liver and inhalations can increase PLD symptoms.

Who should not use lavender? ›

Lavender can affect blood pressure and your central nervous system. If you need surgery or dental work, stop taking lavender at least 2 weeks ahead of time.

Does Tea Tree affect hormones? ›

Studies in human cell lines indicated that lavender and tea tree oils have pro-female (estrogenic) and anti-male (antiandrogenic) hormone activities, and researchers found that “repeated topical exposure to lavender and tea tree oils probably caused prepubertal gynecomastia in these boys.”

Does tea tree oil contain estrogen? ›

D., a co-investigator for the new study, previously found laboratory evidence that lavender and tea tree oil have estrogenic (estrogen-like) properties and anti-androgenic (testosterone inhibiting-like) activities, meaning they compete or hinder the hormones that control male characteristics, which could affect puberty ...

What is the safest sunscreen to use? ›

Mineral-based sunscreens considered safest

For now, if you are concerned about health effects, the safest choice is a so-called “mineral” or “physical” sunscreen with zinc oxide or titanium dioxide, dermatologists say.

What fabrics are endocrine disruptors? ›

Put away the polyester.

Even the clothes we wear can be a source of endocrine disruptors, especially if they're made from polyester. "Polyester pajamas are generally treated with flame retardant," says Schmid. "People should choose natural fabrics like cotton, wool, hemp, and silk over synthetic ones like polyester."

Which sunscreens are endocrine disruptors? ›

BP-3 and OMC are two common sunscreen ingredients that are also known to have endocrine-disrupting potential 8. While they are mainly used as UV filter in sunscreens, they are also prevalent in air, drinking water, cosmetics, fragrances and plastic packagings, providing additional routes of exposure to humans 9.

Are perfumes endocrine disruptors? ›

Perfumes can contain hundreds of different chemicals and in the EU, it is thought more than 2,500 different fragrance ingredients are used in perfumes and perfumed consumer goods.

Is makeup a hormone disruptor? ›

Parabens are a group of chemicals found in some cosmetics, body creams, hair products and sunscreens. They can be absorbed through the skin. Some parabens have hormone-disrupting properties and have been linked to breast cancer. Limit your exposure by choosing products labelled paraben-free.

How do you cleanse the body of endocrine disruptors? ›

For 7 basic tips for any good hormone detox, keep reading!
  1. Add probiotics to your diet, such as yogurt or fermented vegetables. ...
  2. Avoid processed foods that are high in endocrine-disrupting chemicals and low in essential nutrients. ...
  3. Eat more broccoli and fiber-rich foods to move excess estrogen through your digestive tract.

What sunscreen is most recommended by dermatologists? ›

The Best Face Sunscreens, According to Dermatologists
  • Top Pick. Elta MD UV Clear Broad-Spectrum. Pros & Cons $39.00 Buy Now.
  • Best Value. Blue Lizard Sensitive Mineral Sunscreen. Pros & Cons $14.98 Buy Now.
  • Splurge. La Roche-Posay Anthelios Melt-In Sunscreen Milk SPF 60. Pros & Cons $35.99 Buy Now.
8 Sept 2022

Is nail polish an endocrine disruptor? ›

If you wear nail polish, you might be applying more than glossy color to your fingertips. A new study by researchers at EWG and Duke University finds that nail polishes can contain a suspected endocrine disruptor called triphenyl phopshte, or TPHP.

Are there endocrine disruptors in laundry detergent? ›

One of the most common endocrine disruptors found in laundry detergents are NPEs. NPE, or Nonylphenol Ethoxylate, is known as the 'Gender Bender'. This inexpensive nonionic surfactant mimics estrogen in your body, leading to hormonal imbalance and, for some, cancer.

Does deodorant contain endocrine disruptors? ›

Triclosan: Triclosan is an antibacterial chemical, used in deodorants to kill odor-causing germs on the skin. Triclosan is an endocrine disruptor, meaning it can mimic hormones or interfere with hormonal signaling. The chemical's endocrine disrupting abilities are supported by numerous scientific studies.

Is Botox a hormone disruptor? ›

Answer: No. BOTOX is formulated with botulinum toxin, a substance that is able to interfere with the transmission of signals sent to glands and muscles. There are no hormones or cortisone in the product.

Is hair bleach an endocrine disruptor? ›

Bleach, chlorine compounds are especially harmful for a cystic liver. Chlorine compounds is an endocrine disruptor and causes intense liver pains.


1. What are endocrine disruptors?
(Environmental Working Group (EWG))
2. Avoid These Harmful Chemicals in Beauty Products
(The Hol Truth Podcast)
3. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) | Dr. Arpitha Komanapalli
(Dr. Arpitha Komanapalli)
4. Global Concern on Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Way Forward
5. Endocrine disruptors are everywhere and affect everyone: From Hormone-Altering Chemicals
(Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health)
6. EDCs | Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Aging [2020]
(Lance Hitchings)

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