Gallbladder disease in the young male (2023)


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  • References (8)
  • Cited by (9)
  • Recommended articles (6)

The American Journal of Surgery

Volume 131, Issue 2,

February 1976

, Pages 232-234

Author links open overlay panelUSAF, MCRoderick C.Haff(LT COL)Person1USAF, MCRichard J.Andrassy(MAJ)1USAF, MCDaniel R.LeGrand(CAPT)1Irving A.RatnerMD1

(Video) Emergency Gallstone Surgery: Do You Need It, Or Can You Afford to Wait?


Eighteen of 2,614 patients undergoing cholecystectomy in two large general hospitals were males between the ages of two and twenty years. The great majority presented with typical symptoms of cholecystitis. Ten of the eighteen had idiopathic cholelithiasis, with no predisposing factors generally associated with an increased incidence of this disease. This diagnosis must be kept in mind in dealing with patients of this age group.

References (8)

  • JA Kirtley et al.Surgical management of diseases of the gallbladder and common duct in children and adolescents

    Am J Surg


  • PE Hawkins et al.Gallbladder disease in children

    Am J Surg


  • F Glenn et al.

    Primary gallbladder disease in children

    Ann Surg


  • G Natar

    Gallbladder disease in childhood

    Aust Paediatr


There are more references available in the full text version of this article.

Cited by (9)

  • Point-of-care ultrasound diagnosis of pediatric cholecystitis in the ED

    2010, American Journal of Emergency Medicine

    The diagnosis of cholecystitis or biliary tract disease in children and adolescents is an uncommon occurrence in the emergency department and other acute care settings. Misdiagnosis and delays in diagnosing children with cholecystitis or biliary tract disease of up to months and years have been reported in the literature. We discuss the technique and potential utility of point-of-care ultrasound evaluation in a series of pediatric patients with suspected cholecystitis or biliary tract disease.

    (Video) MY SURGERY STORY: Lucie Fink's Gallbladder Removal At Age 26

    We present a nonconsecutive case series of pediatric and adolescent patients with abdominal pain diagnosed with cholecystitis or biliary tract disease using point-of-care ultrasound. The published sonographic criteria is 3 mm or less for the upper limits of normal gallbladder wall thickness and is 3 mm or less for normal common bile duct diameter (measured from inner wall to inner wall) in children. Measurements above these limits were considered abnormal, in addition to the sonographic presence of gallstones, pericholecystic fluid, and a sonographic Murphy's sign.

    Point-of care ultrasound screening detected 13 female pediatric patients with cholecystitis or biliary tract disease when the authors were on duty over a 5-year period. Diagnoses were confirmed by radiology imaging or at surgery and surgical pathology.

    Point-of-care ultrasound to detect pediatric cholecystitis or biliary tract disease may help avoid misdiagnosis or delays in diagnosis in children with abdominal pain.

  • Noncalculous biliary obstruction in the child and adolescent

    2000, Journal of the American College of Surgeons

    tract disease is uncommon in patients 1 to 21 years of age. Ulin and coworkers1 reported only 1.3 cases of cholecystitis in this age group for every 1,000 adult cases at the Mayo Clinic. Cholecystitis rarely develops in male patients less than 19 years of age, constituting only 0.7% of all cholecystectomies in one series of more than 2,000 patients.2 Cholelithiasis is responsible for the majority of pediatric cases of cholecystitis especially in high-risk groups such as obese adolescent girls and those with various hemoglobinopathies. Acalculous cholecystitis is also a particular problem in this age group, constituting 30% to 50% of all cases of pediatric cholecystitis, compared with only 3% to 17% reported in adults.3

    Extrahepatic bile duct obstruction is even more uncommon than cholecystitis in this age group. Although the most common cause is choledocholithasis, the incidence of common duct stones in patients less than 16 years of age undergoing biliary operations has been reported to be less than 0.22%.4 Although other causes of biliary obstruction are rare, obstructive jaundice in the young patient in the absence of stones may pose a diagnostic dilemma requiring a thorough investigation and often resulting in a protracted course of treatment.

    This article reviews the various noncalculous etiologies of biliary obstruction in patients 21 years old or younger and proposes a diagnostic algorithm that may be helpful in the evaluation of the young jaundiced patient.

  • Acalculous cholecystitis in Nigerian Igbos

    1977, The American Journal of Surgery

    Twenty-six patients undergoing cholecystectomy for suspected gallbladder disease in hospitals serving the Igbos of Nigeria were studied. Sixteen patients had chronic acalculous cholecystitis, seven exhibited cholelithiasis, and three showed normal gallbladders. Of the sixteen with acalculous cholecystitis, there were ten males and six females whose ages averaged twenty-eight and forty-two years, respectively. This disease deserves worldwide comparative studies.

  • Septic acute cholecystitis

    1995, Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology

View all citing articles on Scopus

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    To validate the biological and prognostic value of tertiary Gleason pattern 5 (TGP5) in patients with Gleason score 7 (GS 7) prostate cancer (PCa) and to develop a prognostic model to identify the high-risk group of patients with TGP5.

    We retrospectively reviewed the data from 4,146 patients with localized (pT2–3 N0 M0) GS 7 PCa treated by radical prostatectomy (RP) without adjuvant therapy. The primary end point was biochemical recurrence (BCR), and the secondary one was to build a bootstrap-corrected multivariable Cox model.

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    Knowledge of TGP5 improves our prognostication of patients with GS 7 PCa treated with RP. We developed a statistical tool to help identify the patients with TGP5 who are at the highest risk of BCR after RP, thereby helping with the clinical decision making regarding adjuvant trials and follow-up scheduling.

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    The use of CT findings to predict extent of tumor at primary surgery for ovarian cancer

    Gynecologic Oncology, Volume 130, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 280-283

    High tumor dissemination (HTD) is a major risk factor for serious morbidity after primary ovarian cancer (OC) surgery, particularly in medically compromised patients. We performed a pilot study of whether CT findings could predict extent of disease and surgical complexity necessary in advanced OC.

    Preoperative CT images for patients with advanced OC from 1997–2003 were evaluated for rigorously defined disease-related findings and compared to both the findings at exploration and the required surgical procedures. Associations were assessed by the chi-square test.

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    The findings of diaphragm disease and omental cake on CT scan are highly predictive for high tumor dissemination (HTD) and thus likelihood of extensive surgery required to achieve low residual disease. In addition, multiple CT findings correlate strongly with the need for higher surgical complexity which should facilitate preoperative planning and/or triage to specialized centers. These preliminary data suggest specific CT findings can be used to optimize treatment planning.

  • Historically, only 10% of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are diagnosed with early-stage, potentially curable disease. In this study, chronic hepatitis virus-infected patients were prospectively screened to determine: (i) the proportion of patients diagnosed with potentially curable HCC, and (ii) survival following curative therapy.

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    The game ‘contract bridge’ is one of the most widely known card games comprising many fascinating aspects, such as bidding, playing and winning the trick including estimation of hand strength, the additional input data based on the human knowledge of the game to improve the quality of results. The game classified under a game of imperfect information is to be equally well-defined, since the decision made on any stage of the game is purely based on the decision that was made on the immediate preceding stage. The incompleteness of information, the real spirit of the card game in proceeding further deals of the game are taking into many forms especially during the distribution of cards for the next deal. One among the architectures of the Artificial Neural Network is considered by training on sample deals and used to estimate the number of tricks taken by one pair of bridge players is the key idea behind the Double Dummy Bridge Problem, implemented in this paper. The Cascade Correlation Neural Network architecture with supervised learning implemented to train data and hence to test it is coupled along with Work point count system.

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    The Journal of Urology, Volume 193, Issue 5, 2015, pp. 1632-1636

    Boys with cryptorchidism have overall increased gonadotropin and decreased serum inhibin B levels compared to normal. Serum inhibin B levels, produced by Sertoli cells, may reflect the state of germinative epithelium in cryptorchid testes. We evaluated whether serum inhibin B levels differed between boys with unilateral vanished testis and those with unilateral cryptorchidism.

    Blood samples from 297 boys 1.5 to 5 years old were included, of whom 222 had unilateral cryptorchidism, 29 had unilateral vanished testis and 46 had undergone unilateral orchiopexy 1 year previously. Serum inhibin B levels were measured using a commercially available ELISA kit and were compared to normal range.

    Serum inhibin B levels in boys with unilateral vanished testis were not different from those with unilateral cryptorchidism. Serum inhibin B values were above the normal median in 43% of boys previously operated on for unilateral cryptorchidism, compared to 17% at surgery (p = 0.0003). The percentage of patients with inhibin B levels below normal range was 14% in those with unilateral vanished testis, 23% in those with unilateral cryptorchidism and 11% in those who had undergone orchiopexy 1 year previously for unilateral cryptorchidism. The percentage of boys with inhibin B levels above normal median was 24% in those with unilateral vanished testis, 17% in those with unilateral cryptorchidism and 43% in those who had undergone orchiopexy. However, in boys with a vanished testis the frequency of serum inhibin B above normal median was only 5% before age 1.5 years, after which the rate was 67% (p=0.0022).

    Our findings may reflect the development of contralateral testicular hypertrophy in boys with unilateral vanished testis. The initial low inhibin B values may be explained by impaired total number of Sertoli cells. Serum inhibin B values also indicated that in 6-month to 5-year-old boys with cryptorchidism orchiopexy was beneficial for the germinative epithelium.

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    The influence of the rearing period on intramammary infections in Swiss dairy heifers: A cross-sectional study

    Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Volume 129, 2016, pp. 23-34

    Healthy replacement heifers are one of the foundations of a healthy dairy herd. Farm management and rearing systems in Switzerland provide a wide variety of factors that could potentially be associated with intramammary infections (IMI) in early lactating dairy heifers. In this study, IMI with minor mastitis pathogens such as coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), contagious pathogens, and environmental major pathogens were identified. Fifty-four dairy farms were enrolled in the study. A questionnaire was used to collect herd level data on housing, management and welfare of young stock during farm visits and interviews with the farmers. Cow-level data such as breed, age at first calving, udder condition and swelling, and calving ease were also recorded. Data was also collected about young stock that spent a period of at least 3 months on an external rearing farm or on a seasonal alpine farm. At the quarter level, teat conditions such as teat lesions, teat dysfunction, presence of a papilloma and teat length were recorded. Within 24h after parturition, samples of colostral milk from 1564 quarters (391 heifers) were collected aseptically for bacterial culture. Positive bacteriological culture results were found in 49% of quarter samples. Potential risk factors for IMI were identified at the quarter, animal and herd level using multivariable and multilevel logistic regression analysis. At the herd level tie-stalls, and at cow-level the breed category “Brown cattle” were risk factors for IMI caused by contagious major pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). At the quarter-level, teat swelling and teat lesions were highly associated with IMI caused by environmental major pathogens. At the herd level heifer rearing at external farms was associated with less IMI caused by major environmental pathogens. Keeping pregnant heifers in a separate group was negatively associated with IMI caused by CNS. The odds of IMI with coagulase-negative staphylococci increased if weaning age was less than 4 months and if concentrates were fed to calves younger than 2 weeks. This study identified herd, cow- and quarter-level risk factors that may be important for IMI prevention in the future.


From the Department of Surgery, Wilford Hall USAF Medical Center, Lackland Air Force Base, Texas, and Santa Rosa Children's Hospital, San Antonio, Texas.

View full text

Copyright © 1976 Published by Elsevier Inc.


What causes gallbladder problems in men? ›

Gallstones are more likely to form if there's an overabundance of cholesterol in the bile. So, the best way to prevent an accumulation of gallstones is to reduce your fatty food intake. Diets recommended for lowering high cholesterol levels, such as the Mediterranean diet, are helpful if you have gallbladder problems.

Can a 20 year old have gallbladder problems? ›

Age is a major risk factor for development of gallstone disease [3]. Gallstones typically form between 20 and 40 years of age, but become symptomatic much later [4].

What causes gallstones in young men? ›

What causes gallstones? Gallstones may form if bile contains too much cholesterol, too much bilirubin, or not enough bile salts. Researchers do not fully understand why these changes in bile occur. Gallstones also may form if the gallbladder does not empty completely or often enough.

Why do young people have gallbladder issues? ›

Gallbladder disease is linked to two other health problems that are on the rise in young people: obesity and diabetes. So it's not a surprise that numbers are trending upwards. The gallbladder acts as a reservoir for bile, a substance produced by the liver which helps the body digest fat.

What are gallbladder symptoms in men? ›

  • Sudden and rapidly intensifying pain in the upper right portion of your abdomen.
  • Sudden and rapidly intensifying pain in the center of your abdomen, just below your breastbone.
  • Back pain between your shoulder blades.
  • Pain in your right shoulder.
  • Nausea or vomiting.
20 Aug 2021

Do males have gallbladder problems? ›

About 1 in 5 women and 1 in 10 men have a gallstone by age 60. They are more likely to happen to older people, those who are overweight, and those who suddenly lose weight.

Why would a 20 year old have gallstones? ›

identified patients between the ages of 16 and 25 and found obesity, pregnancy, age, and female gender as important risk factors for the development of gallstones for this age group [12].

What are signs that your gallbladder is not working? ›

Chronic gallbladder disease can result in digestive issues, such as nausea and vomiting. Additionally, acid reflux and gas may be experienced. An infection of the gallbladder can result in an unexplained fever or chills.

What happens if gallbladder issues go untreated? ›

Death of gallbladder tissue.

Untreated cholecystitis can cause tissue in the gallbladder to die (gangrene). It's the most common complication, especially among older people, those who wait to get treatment and those with diabetes. This can lead to a tear in the gallbladder, or it may cause your gallbladder to burst.

What foods irritate the gallbladder? ›

Foods to Avoid With Gallbladder Problems
  • Fried foods.
  • Highly processed foods (doughnuts, pie, cookies)
  • Whole-milk dairy products (cheese, ice cream, butter)
  • Fatty red meat.
20 Feb 2022

How do males pass gallstones? ›

The good news is you can pass small gallstones. Dr. McKenzie says some small gallstones leave your gallbladder and pass into your bile ducts. The stones that don't get stuck move into the small bowel and are passed in your stool.

Can stress cause gallbladder problems? ›

From an emotional perspective, eating in a hurry, when stressed or angry, may also lead to ~ spasms of the bile duct and consequently to liver-gallbladder and digestive issues.

What are the five F's of gallbladder disease? ›

What are the 5 Fs of gallbladder disease? The five Fs were a mnemonic device that healthcare providers used in the past to memorize common risk factors for gallbladder disease. The five Fs were: fair, female, fat, fertile and 40.

What can trigger gallbladder? ›

Anything in the stomach causes the gallbladder to squeeze, even a glass of water, but it squeezes harder when there is fat in the stomach. So anything greasy, fried foods, pizza, will stimulate the gallbladder even harder and make it squeeze harder.

How do gallbladder problems start? ›

A gallbladder attack usually happens after you eat a large meal. This occurs because your body makes more bile when you eat fatty foods. You're more likely to have an attack in the evening. If you've had a gallbladder attack, you're at higher risk of having another one.

Can men have their gallbladder removed? ›

The good news? You don't need a gallbladder to live, so if it's causing severe problems, your doctor will likely recommend surgery to remove it. You may need gallbladder surgery if you have pain or other symptoms caused by gallstones.

Where is gallbladder pain in men? ›

Your gallbladder is located in your upper right abdomen, so you will most often feel pain in this area. You may also feel upper mid-abdominal pain or chest pain. You may feel gallbladder referred pain. Referred pain means the pain you feel in one part of your body is caused by pain in another part of your body.

Are gallstones common in males? ›

Gender. Women are twice as likely to develop gallstones than men. Age. People over 60 are more likely to develop gallstones than younger people.

Do men get cholecystitis? ›

Conclusion. The male gender is a risk factor for severe gallbladder inflammation. An early surgical intervention may be needed to prevent complications.

What is the life expectancy of someone with gallstones? ›

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - People who have gallstones are more likely to die within 20 years of diagnosis than people without the disease, a new study says.

Can skinny people get gallstones? ›

The simple answer is yes! Although gallstones are often seen as a condition that only affects those who are 'fair, fat and 40' the reality is you can get them at any time.

How serious is having gallstones? ›

Gallstone disease is usually easily treated with surgery. Very severe cases can be life threatening, particularly in people who are already in poor health.

What color is your poop if you have gallbladder problems? ›

Gray: May indicate a liver or gallbladder problem or be symptomatic of viral hepatitis, gallstones or alcoholic hepatitis. Yellow, greasy, foul-smelling: Excess fat in the stool, possibly due to a malabsorption disorder like celiac disease.

What does a low functioning gallbladder feel like? ›

The swelling of your gallbladder and the retained bile within it can cause infections, inflammation (cholecystitis) and pain. You may feel intermittent upper abdominal pain in your upper abdomen that comes and goes and nausea, especially after eating when your gallbladder tries to contract.

What does poop look like with gallbladder problems? ›

Gallbladder issues often lead to changes in digestion and bowel movements. Unexplained and frequent diarrhea after meals can be a sign of chronic Gallbladder disease. Stools may become light-colored or chalky if bile ducts are obstructed.

How is life after gallbladder removal? ›

You can lead a perfectly normal life without a gallbladder. Your liver will still make enough bile to digest your food, but instead of being stored in the gallbladder, it drips continuously into your digestive system.

Can you live with a diseased gallbladder? ›

Yes, you can live a normal life without a gallbladder. Since the gallbladder's main role is the storage of the bile, and bile is made continuously by the liver, you don't need your gallbladder for normal digestion. Bile can still flow directly from your liver, through the common bile duct and into the small intestine.

Can you recover from gallbladder disease? ›

About 2% of people with symptomatic gallstones develop complications each year, such as acute inflammation and infection. Cholecystectomy is a definitive treatment for most gallstones, and most people recover quickly and completely from it.

Are bananas good for gallbladder? ›

Yes, you can eat bananas with gallstones as they are very low in fat and contain vitamins C and B6 and magnesium, which are all good for your gallbladder.

What vitamins are good for gallbladder? ›

Vitamin C, magnesium, and folate. Vitamin C, magnesium, and folate may help prevent gallbladder disease. Fresh fruits and vegetables are good sources of these nutrients.

How can I calm my gallbladder fast? ›

  1. Apply a heated compress to the area for 10-15 minutes to relieve gallbladder pain.
  2. Try sipping menthol tea which is pain relief properties.
  3. Sip apple cider vinegar to stop inflammation and relieve pain.
  4. Take a magnesium supplement to ease gallbladder spasms.

What percentage of men get gallstones? ›

In the United States, approximately 6 percent of men and 9 percent of women have gallstones [3]. Patients with gallstone disease may be asymptomatic or may present with biliary colic or complications of gallstone disease.

Can low vitamin D cause gallbladder problems? ›

Time of birth during low vitamin D exposure was associated with gallstone disease (gallstone prevalence 18.0 versus 14.4 %, odds ratio 1.33, 95 % confidence interval [1.07; 1.65]).

Is coffee good for your gallbladder? ›

An earlier study found that drinking coffee lowers gallstone risk among men. The Harvard researchers suggested that the caffeine in coffee is responsible for the gallstone effect, perhaps because it triggers gallbladder contractions that may discourage stone formation.

What emotions are stored in the gallbladder? ›

Anger is the emotion of the liver and the gallbladder, organs associated with the wood element. Emotions like rage, fury or aggravation can indicate that this energy is in excess, and when we experience these emotions consistently, our liver can get damaged.

What foods should you avoid if you have gallbladder disease? ›

Eating a healthy diet can help you maintain good health and prevent disease, including gallbladder disease. Some of the factors that may increase your risk for conditions like gallblader cancer are outside of your control.
Healthy fats
  • nuts.
  • olive oil.
  • fish and fish oil supplements.

What foods help calm gallbladder? ›

Increasing nutrient-rich foods in your diet, such as vegetables and fruits, can improve gallbladder function and prevent complications.
Some foods you should consider incorporating into your diet are:
  • dark, leafy greens.
  • nuts.
  • brown rice.
  • whole grains.
  • fish.
  • olive oil.
  • beans.
  • citrus fruits.
8 Oct 2019

How do you test for gallbladder infection? ›

  1. Blood tests. Your health care provider may order blood tests to look for signs of an infection or signs of gallbladder problems.
  2. Imaging tests that show your gallbladder. ...
  3. A scan that shows the movement of bile through your body.
9 Sept 2022

What can trigger gallbladder attacks? ›

Anything in the stomach causes the gallbladder to squeeze, even a glass of water, but it squeezes harder when there is fat in the stomach. So anything greasy, fried foods, pizza, will stimulate the gallbladder even harder and make it squeeze harder.

What foods can trigger a gallbladder? ›

Foods that may trigger gallbladder attacks include:
  • Fatty foods.
  • Fried foods.
  • Dairy products.
  • Sugary foods.
  • Eggs.
  • Acidic foods.
  • Carbonated soft drinks.

Can stress cause gallbladder issues? ›

Stress-induced inhibition of gall bladder emptying could affect energy assimilation such that subordinate animals would not be able to effectively convert energy-rich food into mass gain. These results parallel changes in gall bladder function preceding cholesterol gallstone formation in humans and other mammals.

Can stress flare up your gallbladder? ›

From an emotional perspective, eating in a hurry, when stressed or angry, may also lead to ~ spasms of the bile duct and consequently to liver-gallbladder and digestive issues.

What can be mistaken for gallbladder problems? ›

Also known as the “stomach flu,” gastroenteritis may be mistaken for a gallbladder issue. Symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, watery diarrhea, and cramping are hallmarks of the stomach flu.

What food heals the gallbladder? ›

Healthy Foods for the Gallbladder

Fresh fruits and vegetables. Whole grains (whole-wheat bread, brown rice, oats, bran cereal) Lean meat, poultry, and fish. Low-fat dairy products.

What foods calm a gallbladder? ›

Increasing nutrient-rich foods in your diet, such as vegetables and fruits, can improve gallbladder function and prevent complications.
Some foods you should consider incorporating into your diet are:
  • dark, leafy greens.
  • nuts.
  • brown rice.
  • whole grains.
  • fish.
  • olive oil.
  • beans.
  • citrus fruits.
8 Oct 2019

Can gallbladder disease be cured? ›

Gallstone Disease Treatment: Surgery

Cholecystectomy is surgery to remove your gallbladder. It is the only treatment option to cure symptomatic gallstones. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the most common procedure instead of a traditional, open procedure.

How serious is gallbladder removal? ›

Gallbladder removal surgery is considered to be a safe procedure, but, like any type of surgery, there's a risk of complications. Possible complications include: wound infection. bile leaking into the tummy.

What do gallbladder attacks feel like? ›

Gallbladder pain feels different than any other kind of pain you've ever felt in your abdomen. You may feel a sudden, sharp pain in your upper right abdomen. It may feel like someone is cutting you with a knife. The pain is constant and severe.


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